ASEAN

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  • #383752
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    ASEAN = the Association of South East Nations.

    Comprised of 10 South East Asia nations, including Cambodia.

    **

    ESTABLISHMENT

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, or ASEAN, was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the Founding Fathers of ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.

    Brunei Darussalam then joined on 7 January 1984, Viet Nam on 28 July 1995, Lao PDR and Myanmar on 23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999, making up what is today the ten Member States of ASEAN.

    **

    [Message last modified 05-10-2011 06:58pm by veayoo]

    #383761
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    AIMS AND PURPOSES

    As set out in the ASEAN Declaration, the aims and purposes of ASEAN are:

    1.

    To accelerate the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region through joint endeavours in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian Nations;

    2.

    To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries of the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter;

    3.

    To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in the economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields;

    4.

    To provide assistance to each other in the form of training and research facilities in the educational, professional, technical and administrative spheres;

    5.

    To collaborate more effectively for the greater utilisation of their agriculture and industries, the expansion of their trade, including the study of the problems of international commodity trade, the improvement of their transportation and communications facilities and the raising of the living standards of their peoples;

    6.

    To promote Southeast Asian studies; and

    7.

    To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organisations with similar aims and purposes, and explore all avenues for even closer cooperation among themselves.

    #383768
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

    In their relations with one another, the ASEAN Member States have adopted the following fundamental principles, as contained in the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC) of 1976:

    1.

    Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity, and national identity of all nations;

    2.

    The right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion;

    3.

    Non-interference in the internal affairs of one another;

    4.

    Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful manner;

    5.

    Renunciation of the threat or use of force; and

    6.

    Effective cooperation among themselves.

    #383775
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    ASEAN COMMUNITY

    The ASEAN Vision 2020, adopted by the ASEAN Leaders on the 30th Anniversary of ASEAN, agreed on a shared vision of ASEAN as a concert of Southeast Asian nations, outward looking, living in peace, stability and prosperity, bonded together in partnership in dynamic development and in a community of caring societies.

    At the 9th ASEAN Summit in 2003, the ASEAN Leaders resolved that an ASEAN Community shall be established.

    At the 12th ASEAN Summit in January 2007, the Leaders affirmed their strong commitment to accelerate the establishment of an ASEAN Community by 2015 and signed the Cebu Declaration on the Acceleration of the Establishment of an ASEAN Community by 2015.

    The ASEAN Community is comprised of three pillars, namely:

    1. the ASEAN Political-Security Community,

    2. ASEAN Economic Community, and

    3. ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.

    Each pillar has its own Blueprint, and, together with the Initiative for ASEAN Integration (IAI) Strategic Framework and IAI Work Plan Phase II (2009-2015), they form the Roadmap for and ASEAN Community 2009-2015.

    #383783
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    ASEAN CHARTER

    The ASEAN Charter serves as a firm foundation in achieving the ASEAN Community by providing legal status and institutional framework for ASEAN.

    It also codifies ASEAN norms, rules and values; sets clear targets for ASEAN; and presents accountability and compliance.

    The ASEAN Charter entered into force on 15 December 2008. A gathering of the ASEAN Foreign Ministers was held at the ASEAN Secretariat in Jakarta to mark this very historic occasion for ASEAN.

    With the entry into force of the ASEAN Charter, ASEAN will henceforth operate under a new legal framework and establish a number of new organs to boost its community-building process.

    In effect, the ASEAN Charter has become a legally binding agreement among the 10 ASEAN Member States.

    #383791
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    Brunei Darussalam

    Head of State : His Majesty Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzaddin Waddaulah
    Capital : Bandar Seri Begawan
    Language(s) : Malay, English

    ——————————————————————————–

    Cambodia

    Head of State : His Majesty King Norodom Sihamoni
    Head of Government : Prime Minister Hun Sen
    Capital : Phnom Penh
    Language : Khmer

    ——————————————————————————–

    Indonesia

    Head of State : President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
    Capital : Jakarta
    Language : Indonesian

    ——————————————————————————–

    Lao PDR

    Head of State : President Choummaly Sayasone
    Head of Government : Prime Minister Thongsing Thammavong
    Capital : Vientiane
    Language : Lao

    ——————————————————————————–

    Malaysia

    Head of Government : The Honourable Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak
    Capital : Kuala Lumpur
    Language(s) : Malay, English, Chinese, Tamil

    ——————————————————————————–

    Myanmar

    Head of State : Senior General Than Shwe
    Head of Government : Prime Minister General Thein Sein
    Capital : Nay Pyi Taw
    Language : Myanmar

    ——————————————————————————–

    Philippines

    Head of State : President Benigno S. Aquino III
    Capital : Manila
    Language(s) : Filipino, English, Spanish

    ——————————————————————————–

    Singapore

    Head of State : President S R Nathan
    Head of Government : Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong
    Capital : Singapore
    Language(s) : English, Malay, Mandarin, Tamil

    ——————————————————————————–

    Thailand

    Head of State : His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej
    Head of Government : Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva
    Capital : Bangkok
    Language : Thai

    ——————————————————————————–

    Viet Nam

    Head of State : President Nguyen Minh Triet
    Head of Government : Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung
    Capital : Ha Noi
    Language : Vietnamese

    #383797
    Avatar of JackTsang05
    JackTsang05
    Participant

    East Timor try to get into ASEAN, but they are rejected as of now because to lack of a stable government and the stability of the country. Also they are the poorest country in southeast asia and right within ASEAN there are still a few states that is very poor such as, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, etc… so adding East Timor to ASEAN would be difficult because they could not handle another poor state especially with the unstability of the country to bring in foreign investment unlike that of Cambodia and Laos.

    #383805
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    JackTsang05,

    Good info.

    I read about East Timor application for admission into Asean. I never found out why it has not been accepted yet.

    [i]Originally posted by JackTsang05[/i]
    East Timor try to get into ASEAN, but they are rejected as of now because to lack of a stable government and the stability of the country. Also they are the poorest country in southeast asia and right within ASEAN there are still a few states that is very poor such as, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, etc… so adding East Timor to ASEAN would be difficult because they could not handle another poor state especially with the unstability of the country to bring in foreign investment unlike that of Cambodia and Laos.

    #383812
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    ASEAN has grown large. It major structural institutions are the following:

    ASEAN Chair

    ASEAN Secretariat

    Ministerial Bodies

    ASEAN Summits

    ASEAN Coordinating Council

    ASEAN Community Councils

    National Secretariats

    Committees abroad

    #383820
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    ASEAN Chair

    According to Article 31 of the ASEAN Charter, the Chairmanship of ASEAN shall rotate annually, based on the alphabetical order of the English names of Member States.

    A Member State assuming the Chairmanship shall chair the ASEAN Summit and related summits, the ASEAN Coordinating Council, the three ASEAN Community Councils, relevant ASEAN Sectoral Ministerial Bodies and senior officials, and the Committee of Permanent Representatives.

    On 9 April 2010, at the 16th ASEAN Summit in Ha Noi, however, the ten Member States of ASEAN unanimously agreed to Indonesia’s request for a swap of ASEAN Chairmanship with Brunei Darussalam for the year 2011.

    This exchange, however, is one-off and will not affect Cambodia’s assumption of ASEAN Chairmanship in 2012.

    #383827
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    The ASEAN Secretariat

    ——————————————————————————–

    The ASEAN Secretariat was set up in February 1976 by the Foreign Ministers of ASEAN. It was then housed at the Department of Foreign Affairs of Indonesia in Jakarta.

    The existing ASEAN Secretariat at 70A Jalan Sisingamangaraja, Jakarta was established and officiated in 1981 by the then President of Indonesia, H.E. Soeharto.

    The ASEAN Secretariat’s basic function is to provide for greater efficiency in the coordination of ASEAN organs and for more effective implementation of ASEAN projects and activities.

    The ASEAN Secretariat’s vision is that by 2015, it will be the nerve centre of a strong and confident ASEAN Community that is globally respected for acting in full compliance with its Charter and in the best interest of its people.

    The ASEAN Secretariat’s mission is to initiate, facilitate and coordinate ASEAN stakeholder collaboration in realising the purposes and principles of ASEAN as reflected in the ASEAN Charter.

    #383835
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    The ASEAN Charter is a constitution for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It was adopted at the 13th ASEAN Summit in November 2007.

    The intention to draft the constitution had been formally tabled at the 11th ASEAN Summit held in December 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ten ASEAN leaders, one each from each member state, called the ASEAN Eminent Persons Group were assigned to produce recommendations of the drafting of the charter.

    In the 12th ASEAN Summit held in January 2007 in Cebu, the Philippines, several basic proposals were made public. The ASEAN Leaders, therefore, agreed during the Summit to set up a “high level task force on the drafting of the ASEAN Charter” composed of 10 high level government officials from ten member countries.

    The task force then held 13 meetings during 2007. Some of the proposals include the removal of non-interference policy that is central to the regional group since its formation in the 1960s, and to set up a human rights body.

    #383843
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    Principles set out in the charter include:

    Emphasising the centrality of ASEAN in regional cooperation.

    Respect for the principles of territorial integrity, sovereignty, non-interference and national identities of ASEAN members.

    Promoting regional peace and identity, peaceful settlements of disputes through dialogue and consultation, and the renunciation of aggression.

    Upholding international law with respect to human rights, social justice and multilateral trade.

    Encouraging regional integration of trade.

    Appointment of a Secretary-General and Permanent Representatives of ASEAN.

    Establishment of a human rights body and an unresolved dispute mechanism, to be decided at ASEAN Summits.

    Development of friendly external relations and a position with the UN (like the EU)

    Increasing the number of ASEAN summits to twice a year and the ability to convene for emergency situations.

    Reiterating the use of the ASEAN flag, anthem, emblem and national ASEAN day on August 8.

    #383851
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    Enactment

    The Charter came into force in December 2008, thirty days after Thailand’s delivery of the final instrument of ratification.

    #383860
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    Launch

    On December 15, 2008, the members of ASEAN met in the Indonesian capital of Jakarta to launch a charter, signed in November 2007, with the aim of moving closer to “an EU-style community”.

    The charter turns ASEAN into a legal entity and aims to create a single free-trade area for the region encompassing 500 million people.

    Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono stated: “This is a momentous development when ASEAN is consolidating, integrating and transforming itself into a community. It is achieved while ASEAN seeks a more vigorous role in Asian and global affairs at a time when the international system is experiencing a seismic shift,” he added, referring to climate change and economic upheaval. Southeast Asia is no longer the bitterly divided, war-torn region it was in the 1960s and 1970s.”

    The charter’s aims included:

    1.”Respect for the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of member states”

    2.”Peaceful settlement of disputes”

    3.”Non-interference in member states’ internal affairs”

    4.”Right to live without external interference”

    However, the ongoing global financial crisis was stated as being a threat to the goals envisioned by the charter, and also set forth the idea of a proposed human rights body to be discussed at a future summit in February 2009. This proposal caused controversy, as the body would not have the power to impose sanctions or punish countries who violate citizens’ rights and would therefore be limited in effectiveness.

    #383875
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    ASEAN Charter,ASEAN constitution, is comprised of a Preamble and 13 chapters which list 55 articles.

    ***

    PREAMBLE

    WE, THE PEOPLES of the Member States of the
    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), as
    represented by the Heads of State or Government of Brunei
    Darussalam, the Kingdom of Cambodia, the Republic of
    Indonesia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia,
    the Union of Myanmar, the Republic of the Philippines, the
    Republic of Singapore, the Kingdom of Thailand and the
    Socialist Republic of Viet Nam:

    NOTING with satisfaction the significant achievements and
    expansion of ASEAN since its establishment in Bangkok
    through the promulgation of The ASEAN Declaration;

    RECALLING the decisions to establish an ASEAN Charter in
    the Vientiane Action Programme, the Kuala Lumpur
    Declaration on the Establishment of the ASEAN Charter and
    the Cebu Declaration on the Blueprint of the ASEAN Charter;

    MINDFUL of the existence of mutual interests and
    interdependence among the peoples and Member States of
    ASEAN which are bound by geography, common objectives
    and shared destiny;

    INSPIRED by and united under One Vision, One Identity and
    One Caring and Sharing Community;

    UNITED by a common desire and collective will to live in a
    region of lasting peace, security and stability, sustained
    economic growth, shared prosperity and social progress, and
    to promote our vital interests, ideals and aspirations;

    RESPECTING the fundamental importance of amity and
    cooperation, and the principles of sovereignty, equality,
    territorial integrity, non-interference, consensus and unity in
    diversity;

    ADHERING to the principles of democracy, the rule of law
    and good governance, respect for and protection of human
    rights and fundamental freedoms;

    RESOLVED to ensure sustainable development for the
    benefit of present and future generations and to place the
    well-being, livelihood and welfare of the peoples at the centre
    of the ASEAN community building process;

    CONVINCED of the need to strengthen existing bonds of
    regional solidarity to realise an ASEAN Community that is
    politically cohesive, economically integrated and socially
    responsible in order to effectively respond to current and
    future challenges and opportunities;

    COMMITTED to intensifying community building through
    enhanced regional cooperation and integration, in particular
    by establishing an ASEAN Community comprising the
    ASEAN Security Community, the ASEAN Economic
    Community and the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community, as
    provided for in the Bali Declaration of ASEAN Concord II;

    HEREBY DECIDE to establish, through this Charter, the
    legal and institutional framework for ASEAN,
    AND TO THIS END, the Heads of State or Government of
    the Member States of ASEAN, assembled in Singapore on
    the historic occasion of the 40th anniversary of the founding
    of ASEAN, have agreed to this Charter.

    [Message last modified 05-11-2011 09:13pm by veayoo]

    #383868
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    CHAPTER I
    PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES

    ARTICLE 1: PURPOSES

    The Purposes of ASEAN are:

    1. To maintain and enhance peace, security and stability
    and further strengthen peace-oriented values in the region;

    2. To enhance regional resilience by promoting greater
    political, security, economic and socio-cultural cooperation;

    3. To preserve Southeast Asia as a Nuclear Weapon-Free
    Zone and free of all other weapons of mass destruction;

    4. To ensure that the peoples and Member States of ASEAN
    live in peace with the world at large in a just, democratic and
    harmonious environment;

    5. To create a single market and production base which is
    stable, prosperous, highly competitive and economically
    integrated with effective facilitation for trade and investment in
    which there is free flow of goods, services and investment;
    facilitated movement of business persons, professionals,
    talents and labour; and freer flow of capital;

    6. To alleviate poverty and narrow the development gap
    within ASEAN through mutual assistance and cooperation;

    7. To strengthen democracy, enhance good governance and
    the rule of law, and to promote and protect human rights and
    fundamental freedoms, with due regard to the rights and
    responsibilities of the Member States of ASEAN;

    8. To respond effectively, in accordance with the principle of
    comprehensive security, to all forms of threats, transnational
    crimes and transboundary challenges;

    9. To promote sustainable development so as to ensure the
    protection of the region’s environment, the sustainability of its
    natural resources, the preservation of its cultural heritage and
    the high quality of life of its peoples;

    10. To develop human resources through closer cooperation
    in education and life-long learning, and in science and
    technology, for the empowerment of the peoples of ASEAN and
    for the strengthening of the ASEAN Community;

    11. To enhance the well-being and livelihood of the peoples
    of ASEAN by providing them with equitable access to
    opportunities for human development, social welfare and
    justice;

    12. To strengthen cooperation in building a safe, secure and
    drug-free environment for the peoples of ASEAN;

    13. To promote a people-oriented ASEAN in which all sectors
    of society are encouraged to participate in, and benefit from,
    the process of ASEAN integration and community building;

    14. To promote an ASEAN identity through the fostering of
    greater awareness of the diverse culture and heritage of the
    region; and

    15. To maintain the centrality and proactive role of ASEAN as
    the primary driving force in its relations and cooperation with its
    external partners in a regional architecture that is open,
    transparent and inclusive.

    ***

    ARTICLE 2: PRINCIPLES

    1. In pursuit of the Purposes stated in Article 1, ASEAN and
    its Member States reaffirm and adhere to the fundamental
    principles contained in the declarations, agreements,
    conventions, concords, treaties and other instruments of
    ASEAN.

    2. ASEAN and its Member States shall act in accordance
    with the following Principles:

    (a) respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality,
    territorial integrity and national identity of all ASEAN
    Member States;

    (b) shared commitment and collective responsibility in
    enhancing regional peace, security and prosperity;

    (c) renunciation of aggression and of the threat or use
    of force or other actions in any manner inconsistent
    with international law;

    (d) reliance on peaceful settlement of disputes;

    (e) non-interference in the internal affairs of ASEAN
    Member States;

    (f) respect for the right of every Member State to lead
    its national existence free from external
    interference, subversion and coercion;

    (g) enhanced consultations on matters seriously
    affecting the common interest of ASEAN;

    (h) adherence to the rule of law, good governance, the
    principles of democracy and constitutional
    government;

    (i) respect for fundamental freedoms, the promotion
    and protection of human rights, and the promotion
    of social justice;

    (j) upholding the United Nations Charter and
    international law, including international
    humanitarian law, subscribed to by ASEAN Member
    States;

    (k) abstention from participation in any policy or activity,
    including the use of its territory, pursued by any
    ASEAN Member State or non-ASEAN State or any
    non-State actor, which threatens the sovereignty,
    territorial integrity or political and economic stability
    of ASEAN Member States;

    (l) respect for the different cultures, languages and
    religions of the peoples of ASEAN, while
    emphasising their common values in the spirit of
    unity in diversity;

    (m) the centrality of ASEAN in external political,
    economic, social and cultural relations while
    remaining actively engaged, outward-looking,
    inclusive and non-discriminatory; and

    (n) adherence to multilateral trade rules and ASEAN’s
    rules-based regimes for effective implementation of
    economic commitments and progressive reduction
    towards elimination of all barriers to regional
    economic integration, in a market-driven economy.

    #383883
    Avatar of KomLostBong
    KomLostBong
    Participant

    How come most Asian people act as like as hell??????????

    #383891
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    KomLostBong,

    It appears like you need to yell out frustations! hah ha

    [i]Originally posted by KomLostBong[/i]
    How come most Asian people act as like as hell??????????

    #383898
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    CHAPTER II

    LEGAL PERSONALITY

    ARTICLE 3. LEGAL PERSONALITY OF ASEAN

    ASEAN, as an inter-governmental organisation, is hereby
    conferred legal personality.

    #383906
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    CHAPTER III
    MEMBERSHIP

    ARTICLE 4. MEMBER STATES

    The Member States of ASEAN are Brunei Darussalam, the
    Kingdom of Cambodia, the Republic of Indonesia, the Lao
    People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Union of
    Myanmar, the Republic of the Philippines, the Republic of
    Singapore, the Kingdom of Thailand and the Socialist Republic
    of Viet Nam.

    ARTICLE 5. RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS

    1. Member States shall have equal rights and obligations
    under this Charter.

    2. Member States shall take all necessary measures,
    including the enactment of appropriate domestic legislation, to
    effectively implement the provisions of this Charter and to
    comply with all obligations of membership.

    3. In the case of a serious breach of the Charter or noncompliance,
    the matter shall be referred to Article 20.

    ARTICLE 6. ADMISSION OF NEW MEMBERS

    1. The procedure for application and admission to ASEAN
    shall be prescribed by the ASEAN Coordinating Council.

    2. Admission shall be based on the following criteria:

    (a) location in the recognised geographical region of
    Southeast Asia;

    (b) recognition by all ASEAN Member States;

    (c) agreement to be bound and to abide by the Charter;
    and

    (d) ability and willingness to carry out the obligations of
    Membership.

    3. Admission shall be decided by consensus by the ASEAN
    Summit, upon the recommendation of the ASEAN Coordinating
    Council.

    4. An applicant State shall be admitted to ASEAN upon
    signing an Instrument of Accession to the Charter.

    #383914
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    CHAPTER IV
    ORGANS

    ARTICLE 7. ASEAN SUMMIT

    1. The ASEAN Summit shall comprise the Heads of State or
    Government of the Member States.

    2. The ASEAN Summit shall:

    (a) be the supreme policy-making body of ASEAN;

    (b) deliberate, provide policy guidance and take
    decisions on key issues pertaining to the realisation
    of the objectives of ASEAN, important matters of
    interest to Member States and all issues referred to
    it by the ASEAN Coordinating Council, the ASEAN
    Community Councils and ASEAN Sectoral
    Ministerial Bodies;

    (c) instruct the relevant Ministers in each of the
    Councils concerned to hold ad hoc inter-Ministerial
    meetings, and address important issues concerning
    ASEAN that cut across the Community Councils.
    Rules of procedure for such meetings shall be
    adopted by the ASEAN Coordinating Council;

    (d) address emergency situations affecting ASEAN by
    taking appropriate actions;

    (e) decide on matters referred to it under Chapters VII
    and VIII;

    (f) authorize the establishment and the dissolution of
    Sectoral Ministerial Bodies and other ASEAN
    institutions; and

    (g) appoint the Secretary-General of ASEAN, with the
    rank and status of Minister, who will serve with the
    confidence and at the pleasure of the Heads of
    State or Government upon the recommendation of
    the ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting.

    3. ASEAN Summit Meetings shall be:

    (a) held twice annually, and be hosted by the Member
    State holding the ASEAN Chairmanship; and

    (b) convened, whenever necessary, as special or ad
    hoc meetings to be chaired by the Member State
    holding the ASEAN Chairmanship, at venues to be
    agreed upon by ASEAN Member States.

    **

    ARTICLE 8. ASEAN COORDINATING COUNCIL

    1. The ASEAN Coordinating Council shall comprise the
    ASEAN Foreign Ministers and meet at least twice a year.

    2. The ASEAN Coordinating Council shall:

    (a) prepare the meetings of the ASEAN Summit;

    (b) coordinate the implementation of agreements and
    decisions of the ASEAN Summit;

    (c) coordinate with the ASEAN Community Councils to
    enhance policy coherence, efficiency and
    cooperation among them;

    (d) coordinate the reports of the ASEAN Community
    Councils to the ASEAN Summit;

    (e) consider the annual report of the Secretary-General
    on the work of ASEAN;

    (f) consider the report of the Secretary-General on the
    functions and operations of the ASEAN Secretariat
    and other relevant bodies;

    (g) approve the appointment and termination of the
    Deputy Secretaries-General upon the
    recommendation of the Secretary-General; and

    (h) undertake other tasks provided for in this Charter or
    such other functions as may be assigned by the
    ASEAN Summit.

    3. The ASEAN Coordinating Council shall be supported by
    the relevant senior officials.

    **

    ARTICLE 9. ASEAN COMMUNITY COUNCILS

    1. The ASEAN Community Councils shall comprise the
    ASEAN Political-Security Community Council, ASEAN
    Economic Community Council, and ASEAN Socio-Cultural
    Community Council.

    2. Each ASEAN Community Council shall have under its
    purview the relevant ASEAN Sectoral Ministerial Bodies.

    3. Each Member State shall designate its national
    representation for each ASEAN Community Council meeting.

    4. In order to realise the objectives of each of the three
    pillars of the ASEAN Community, each ASEAN Community
    Council shall:

    (a) ensure the implementation of the relevant decisions
    of the ASEAN Summit;

    (b) coordinate the work of the different sectors under its
    purview, and on issues which cut across the other
    Community Councils; and

    (c) submit reports and recommendations to the ASEAN
    Summit on matters under its purview.

    5. Each ASEAN Community Council shall meet at least
    twice a year and shall be chaired by the appropriate Minister
    from the Member State holding the ASEAN Chairmanship.

    6. Each ASEAN Community Council shall be supported by
    the relevant senior officials.

    **

    ARTICLE 10. ASEAN SECTORAL MINISTERIAL BODIES

    1. ASEAN Sectoral Ministerial Bodies shall:

    (a) function in accordance with their respective
    established mandates;

    (b) implement the agreements and decisions of the
    ASEAN Summit under their respective purview;

    (c) strengthen cooperation in their respective fields in
    support of ASEAN integration and community
    building; and

    (d) submit reports and recommendations to their
    respective Community Councils.

    2. Each ASEAN Sectoral Ministerial Body may have under
    its purview the relevant senior officials and subsidiary bodies to
    undertake its functions as contained in Annex 1. The Annex
    may be updated by the Secretary-General of ASEAN upon the
    recommendation of the Committee of Permanent
    Representatives without recourse to the provision on
    Amendments under this Charter.

    **

    ARTICLE 11. SECRETARY-GENERAL OF ASEAN AND ASEAN SECRETARIAT

    1. The Secretary-General of ASEAN shall be appointed by
    the ASEAN Summit for a non-renewable term of office of five
    years, selected from among nationals of the ASEAN Member
    States based on alphabetical rotation, with due consideration to
    integrity, capability and professional experience, and gender
    equality.

    2. The Secretary-General shall:

    (a) carry out the duties and responsibilities of this high
    office in accordance with the provisions of this
    Charter and relevant ASEAN instruments, protocols
    and established practices;

    (b) facilitate and monitor progress in the
    implementation of ASEAN agreements and
    decisions, and submit an annual report on the work
    of ASEAN to the ASEAN Summit;

    (c) participate in meetings of the ASEAN Summit, the
    ASEAN Community Councils, the ASEAN Coordinating Council,
    and ASEAN Sectoral Ministerial Bodies and other relevant ASEAN
    meetings;

    (d) present the views of ASEAN and participate in
    meetings with external parties in accordance with
    approved policy guidelines and mandate given to
    the Secretary-General; and

    (e) recommend the appointment and termination of the
    Deputy Secretaries-General to the ASEAN
    Coordinating Council for approval.

    3. The Secretary-General shall also be the Chief
    Administrative Officer of ASEAN.

    4. The Secretary-General shall be assisted by four Deputy
    Secretaries-General with the rank and status of Deputy
    Ministers. The Deputy Secretaries-General shall be
    accountable to the Secretary-General in carrying out their
    functions.

    5. The four Deputy Secretaries-General shall be of different
    nationalities from the Secretary-General and shall come from
    four different ASEAN Member States.

    6. The four Deputy Secretaries-General shall comprise:

    (a) two Deputy Secretaries-General who will serve a
    non-renewable term of three years, selected from
    among nationals of the ASEAN Member States
    based on alphabetical rotation, with due
    consideration to integrity, qualifications,
    competence, experience and gender equality; and

    (b) two Deputy Secretaries-General who will serve a
    term of three years, which may be renewed for
    another three years. These two Deputy Secretaries-
    General shall be openly recruited based on merit.

    7. The ASEAN Secretariat shall comprise the Secretary-
    General and such staff as may be required.

    8. The Secretary-General and the staff shall:

    (a) uphold the highest standards of integrity, efficiency,
    and competence in the performance of their duties;

    (b) not seek or receive instructions from any
    government or external party outside of ASEAN;
    and

    (c) refrain from any action which might reflect on their
    position as ASEAN Secretariat officials responsible
    only to ASEAN.

    9. Each ASEAN Member State undertakes to respect the
    exclusively ASEAN character of the responsibilities of the
    Secretary-General and the staff, and not to seek to influence
    them in the discharge of their responsibilities.

    **

    ARTICLE 12. COMMITTEE OF PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVES TO ASEAN

    1. Each ASEAN Member State shall appoint a Permanent
    Representative to ASEAN with the rank of Ambassador based
    in Jakarta.

    2. The Permanent Representatives collectively constitute a
    Committee of Permanent Representatives, which shall:

    (a) support the work of the ASEAN Community
    Councils and ASEAN Sectoral Ministerial Bodies;

    (b) coordinate with ASEAN National Secretariats and
    other ASEAN Sectoral Ministerial Bodies;

    (c) liaise with the Secretary-General of ASEAN and the
    ASEAN Secretariat on all subjects relevant to its
    work;

    (d) facilitate ASEAN cooperation with external partners;
    and

    (e) perform such other functions as may be determined
    by the ASEAN Coordinating Council.

    **

    ARTICLE 13. ASEAN NATIONAL SECRETARIATS

    Each ASEAN Member State shall establish an ASEAN National
    Secretariat which shall:

    (a) serve as the national focal point;

    (b) be the repository of information on all ASEAN
    matters at the national level;

    (c) coordinate the implementation of ASEAN decisions
    at the national level;

    (d) coordinate and support the national preparations of
    ASEAN meetings;

    (e) promote ASEAN identity and awareness at the
    national level; and

    (f) contribute to ASEAN community building.

    **

    ARTICLE 14. ASEAN HUMAN RIGHTS BODY

    1. In conformity with the purposes and principles of the
    ASEAN Charter relating to the promotion and protection of
    human rights and fundamental freedoms, ASEAN shall
    establish an ASEAN human rights body.

    2. This ASEAN human rights body shall operate in
    accordance with the terms of reference to be determined by the
    ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting.

    **

    ARTICLE 15. ASEAN FOUNDATION

    1. The ASEAN Foundation shall support the Secretary-
    General of ASEAN and collaborate with the relevant ASEAN
    bodies to support ASEAN community building by promoting
    greater awareness of the ASEAN identity, people-to-people
    interaction, and close collaboration among the business sector,
    civil society, academia and other stakeholders in ASEAN.

    2. The ASEAN Foundation shall be accountable to the
    Secretary-General of ASEAN, who shall submit its report to the
    ASEAN Summit through the ASEAN Coordinating Council.

    #383922
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    CHAPTER V
    ENTITIES ASSOCIATED WITH ASEAN

    ARTICLE 16. ENTITIES ASSOCIATED WITH ASEAN

    1. ASEAN may engage with entities which support the
    ASEAN Charter, in particular its purposes and principles. These
    associated entities are listed in Annex 2.

    2. Rules of procedure and criteria for engagement shall be
    prescribed by the Committee of Permanent Representatives
    upon the recommendation of the Secretary-General of ASEAN.

    3. Annex 2 may be updated by the Secretary-General of
    ASEAN upon the recommendation of the Committee of
    Permanent Representatives without recourse to the provision
    on Amendments under this Charter.

    #383930
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    Participant

    CHAPTER VI
    IMMUNITIES AND PRIVILEGES

    ARTICLE 17. IMMUNITIES AND PRIVILEGES OF ASEAN

    1. ASEAN shall enjoy in the territories of the Member States
    such immunities and privileges as are necessary for the
    fulfilment of its purposes.

    2. The immunities and privileges shall be laid down in
    separate agreements between ASEAN and the host Member
    State.

    **

    ARTICLE 18. IMMUNITIES AND PRIVILEGES OF THE SECRETARY GENERAL
    OF ASEAN AND STAFF OF THE ASEAN SECRETARIAT

    1. The Secretary-General of ASEAN and staff of the ASEAN
    Secretariat participating in official ASEAN activities or
    representing ASEAN in the Member States shall enjoy such
    immunities and privileges as are necessary for the independent
    exercise of their functions.

    2. The immunities and privileges under this Article shall be
    laid down in a separate ASEAN agreement.

    **

    ARTICLE 19. IMMUNITIES AND PRIVILEGES OF THE PERMANENT
    REPRESENTATIVES AND OFFICIALS ON ASEAN DUTIES

    1. The Permanent Representatives of the Member States to
    ASEAN and officials of the Member States participating in
    official ASEAN activities or representing ASEAN in the Member
    States shall enjoy such immunities and privileges as are
    necessary for the exercise of their functions.

    2. The immunities and privileges of the Permanent
    Representatives and officials on ASEAN duties shall be
    governed by the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic
    Relations or in accordance with the national law of the ASEAN
    Member State concerned.

    #383938
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    veayoo
    Participant

    CHAPTER VII
    DECISION-MAKING

    ARTICLE 20. CONSULTATION AND CONSENSUS

    1. As a basic principle, decision-making in ASEAN shall be
    based on consultation and consensus.

    2. Where consensus cannot be achieved, the ASEAN
    Summit may decide how a specific decision can be made.

    3. Nothing in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article shall affect
    the modes of decision-making as contained in the relevant
    ASEAN legal instruments.

    4. In the case of a serious breach of the Charter or noncompliance,
    the matter shall be referred to the ASEAN Summit for decision.

    **

    ARTICLE 21. IMPLEMENTATION AND PROCEDURE

    1. Each ASEAN Community Council shall prescribe its own
    rules of procedure.

    2. In the implementation of economic commitments, a
    formula for flexible participation, including the ASEAN Minus X
    formula, may be applied where there is a consensus to do so.

    #383946
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    veayoo
    Participant

    CHAPTER VIII
    SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES

    ARTICLE 22. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

    1. Member States shall endeavour to resolve peacefully all
    disputes in a timely manner through dialogue, consultation and
    negotiation.

    2. ASEAN shall maintain and establish dispute settlement
    mechanisms in all fields of ASEAN cooperation.

    **

    ARTICLE 23. GOOD OFFICES, CONCILIATION AND MEDIATION

    1. Member States which are parties to a dispute may at any
    time agree to resort to good offices, conciliation or mediation in
    order to resolve the dispute within an agreed time limit.

    2. Parties to the dispute may request the Chairman of
    ASEAN or the Secretary-General of ASEAN, acting in an exofficio
    capacity, to provide good offices, conciliation or
    mediation.

    **

    ARTICLE 24. DISPUTE SETTLEMENT MECHANISMS IN SPECIFIC
    INSTRUMENTS

    1. Disputes relating to specific ASEAN instruments shall be
    settled through the mechanisms and procedures provided for in
    such instruments.

    2. Disputes which do not concern the interpretation or
    application of any ASEAN instrument shall be resolved
    peacefully in accordance with the Treaty of Amity and
    Cooperation in Southeast Asia and its rules of procedure.

    3. Where not otherwise specifically provided, disputes which
    concern the interpretation or application of ASEAN economic
    agreements shall be settled in accordance with the ASEAN
    Protocol on Enhanced Dispute Settlement Mechanism.

    **

    ARTICLE 25. ESTABLISHMENT OF DISPUTE SETTLEMENT MECHANISMS

    Where not otherwise specifically provided, appropriate dispute
    settlement mechanisms, including arbitration, shall be
    established for disputes which concern the interpretation or
    application of this Charter and other ASEAN instruments.

    **

    ARTICLE 26. UNRESOLVED DISPUTES

    When a dispute remains unresolved, after the application of the
    preceding provisions of this Chapter, this dispute shall be
    referred to the ASEAN Summit, for its decision.

    **

    ARTICLE 27. COMPLIANCE

    1. The Secretary-General of ASEAN, assisted by the
    ASEAN Secretariat or any other designated ASEAN body,
    shall monitor the compliance with the findings,
    recommendations or decisions resulting from an ASEAN
    dispute settlement mechanism, and submit a report to the
    ASEAN Summit.

    2. Any Member State affected by non-compliance with the
    findings, recommendations or decisions resulting from an
    ASEAN dispute settlement mechanism, may refer the matter to
    the ASEAN Summit for a decision.

    **

    ARTICLE 28. UNITED NATIONS CHARTER PROVISIONS AND
    OTHER RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL PROCEDURES

    Unless otherwise provided for in this Charter, Member States
    have the right of recourse to the modes of peaceful settlement
    contained in Article 33(1) of the Charter of the United Nations or
    any other international legal instruments to which the disputing
    Member States are parties.

    #383953
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    CHAPTER IX
    BUDGET AND FINANCE

    ARTICLE 29. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

    1. ASEAN shall establish financial rules and procedures in
    accordance with international standards.

    2. ASEAN shall observe sound financial management
    policies and practices and budgetary discipline.

    3. Financial accounts shall be subject to internal and
    external audits.

    **

    ARTICLE 30. OPERATIONAL BUDGET AND FINANCES
    OF THE ASEAN SECRETARIAT

    1. The ASEAN Secretariat shall be provided with the
    necessary financial resources to perform its functions
    effectively.

    2. The operational budget of the ASEAN Secretariat shall be
    met by ASEAN Member States through equal annual
    contributions which shall be remitted in a timely manner.

    3. The Secretary-General shall prepare the annual
    operational budget of the ASEAN Secretariat for approval by
    the ASEAN Coordinating Council upon the recommendation of
    the Committee of Permanent Representatives.

    4. The ASEAN Secretariat shall operate in accordance with
    the financial rules and procedures determined by the ASEAN
    Coordinating Council upon the recommendation of the
    Committee of Permanent Representatives.

    #383962
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    CHAPTER X
    ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE

    ARTICLE 31. CHAIRMAN OF ASEAN

    1. The Chairmanship of ASEAN shall rotate annually, based
    on the alphabetical order of the English names of Member
    States.

    2. ASEAN shall have, in a calendar year, a single
    Chairmanship by which the Member State assuming the
    Chairmanship shall chair:

    (a) the ASEAN Summit and related summits;

    (b) the ASEAN Coordinating Council;

    (c) the three ASEAN Community Councils;

    (d) where appropriate, the relevant ASEAN Sectoral
    Ministerial Bodies and senior officials; and

    (e) the Committee of Permanent Representatives.

    **

    ARTICLE 32. ROLE OF THE CHAIRMAN OF ASEAN

    The Member State holding the Chairmanship of ASEAN shall:

    (a) actively promote and enhance the interests and wellbeing
    of ASEAN, including efforts to build an ASEAN
    Community through policy initiatives, coordination,
    consensus and cooperation;

    (b) ensure the centrality of ASEAN;

    (c) ensure an effective and timely response to urgent
    issues or crisis situations affecting ASEAN, including
    providing its good offices and such other arrangements
    to immediately address these concerns;

    (d) represent ASEAN in strengthening and promoting
    closer relations with external partners; and

    (e) carry out such other tasks and functions as may be
    mandated.

    **

    ARTICLE 33. DIPLOMATIC PROTOCOL AND PRACTICES

    ASEAN and its Member States shall adhere to existing
    diplomatic protocol and practices in the conduct of all activities
    relating to ASEAN. Any changes shall be approved by the
    ASEAN Coordinating Council upon the recommendation of the
    Committee of Permanent Representatives.

    **

    ARTICLE 34. WORKING LANGUAGE OF ASEAN

    The working language of ASEAN shall be English.

    #383970
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    CHAPTER XI
    IDENTITY AND SYMBOLS

    ARTICLE 35. ASEAN IDENTITY

    ASEAN shall promote its common ASEAN identity and a sense
    of belonging among its peoples in order to achieve its shared
    destiny, goals and values.

    **

    ARTICLE 36. ASEAN MOTTO

    The ASEAN motto shall be: “One Vision, One Identity, One Community”

    **

    ARTICLE 37. ASEAN FLAG

    The ASEAN flag shall be as shown in Annex 3.

    **

    ARTICLE 38. ASEAN EMBLEM

    The ASEAN emblem shall be as shown in Annex 4.

    **

    ARTICLE 39. ASEAN DAY

    The eighth of August shall be observed as ASEAN Day.

    **

    ARTICLE 40. ASEAN ANTHEM

    ASEAN shall have an anthem.

    #383978
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    CHAPTER XII
    EXTERNAL RELATIONS

    ARTICLE 41. CONDUCT OF EXTERNAL RELATIONS

    1. ASEAN shall develop friendly relations and mutually
    beneficial dialogue, cooperation and partnerships with countries
    and sub-regional, regional and international organisations and
    institutions.

    2. The external relations of ASEAN shall adhere to the
    purposes and principles set forth in this Charter.

    3. ASEAN shall be the primary driving force in regional
    arrangements that it initiates and maintain its centrality in
    regional cooperation and community building.

    4. In the conduct of external relations of ASEAN, Member
    States shall, on the basis of unity and solidarity, coordinate and
    endeavour to develop common positions and pursue joint
    actions.

    5. The strategic policy directions of ASEAN’s external
    relations shall be set by the ASEAN Summit upon the
    recommendation of the ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting.

    6. The ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting shall ensure
    consistency and coherence in the conduct of ASEAN’s external
    relations.

    7. ASEAN may conclude agreements with countries or subregional,
    regional and international organisations and
    institutions. The procedures for concluding such agreements
    shall be prescribed by the ASEAN Coordinating Council in
    consultation with the ASEAN Community Councils.

    **

    ARTICLE 42. DIALOGUE COORDINATOR

    1. Member States, acting as Country Coordinators, shall
    take turns to take overall responsibility in coordinating and
    promoting the interests of ASEAN in its relations with the
    relevant Dialogue Partners, regional and international
    organisations and institutions.

    2. In relations with the external partners, the Country
    Coordinators shall, inter alia:

    (a) represent ASEAN and enhance relations on the
    basis of mutual respect and equality, in conformity
    with ASEAN’s principles;

    (b) co-chair relevant meetings between ASEAN and
    external partners; and

    (c) be supported by the relevant ASEAN Committees in
    Third Countries and International Organisations.

    **

    ARTICLE 43. ASEAN COMMITTEES IN THIRD COUNTRIES
    AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS

    1. ASEAN Committees in Third Countries may be
    established in non-ASEAN countries comprising heads of
    diplomatic missions of ASEAN Member States. Similar
    Committees may be established relating to international
    organisations. Such Committees shall promote ASEAN’s
    interests and identity in the host countries and international
    organisations.

    2. The ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting shall determine
    the rules of procedure of such Committees.

    **

    ARTICLE 44. STATUS OF EXTERNAL PARTIES

    1. In conducting ASEAN’s external relations, the ASEAN
    Foreign Ministers Meeting may confer on an external party the
    formal status of Dialogue Partner, Sectoral Dialogue Partner,
    Development Partner, Special Observer, Guest, or other status
    that may be established henceforth.

    2. External parties may be invited to ASEAN meetings or
    cooperative activities without being conferred any formal status,
    in accordance with the rules of procedure.

    **

    ARTICLE 45. RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM AND
    OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS

    1. ASEAN may seek an appropriate status with the United
    Nations system as well as with other sub-regional, regional,
    international organisations and institutions.

    2. The ASEAN Coordinating Council shall decide on the
    participation of ASEAN in other sub-regional, regional,
    international organisations and institutions.

    **

    ARTICLE 46. ACCREDITATION OF NON-ASEAN MEMBER STATES TO ASEAN

    Non-ASEAN Member States and relevant inter-governmental
    organisations may appoint and accredit Ambassadors to ASEAN.
    The ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting shall decide on such
    accreditation.

    #383986
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    CHAPTER XIII
    GENERAL AND FINAL PROVISIONS

    ARTICLE 47. SIGNATURE, RATIFICATION, DEPOSITORY AND ENTRY
    INTO FORCE

    1. This Charter shall be signed by all ASEAN Member
    States.

    2. This Charter shall be subject to ratification by all ASEAN
    Member States in accordance with their respective internal
    procedures.

    3. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the
    Secretary-General of ASEAN who shall promptly notify all
    Member States of each deposit.

    4. This Charter shall enter into force on the thirtieth day
    following the date of deposit of the tenth instrument of
    ratification with the Secretary-General of ASEAN.

    **

    ARTICLE 48. AMENDMENTS

    1. Any Member State may propose amendments to the
    Charter.

    2. Proposed amendments to the Charter shall be submitted
    by the ASEAN Coordinating Council by consensus to the
    ASEAN Summit for its decision.

    3. Amendments to the Charter agreed to by consensus by
    the ASEAN Summit shall be ratified by all Member States in
    accordance with Article 47.

    4. An amendment shall enter into force on the thirtieth day
    following the date of deposit of the last instrument of ratification
    with the Secretary-General of ASEAN.

    **

    ARTICLE 49. TERMS OF REFERENCE AND RULES OF PROCEDURE

    Unless otherwise provided for in this Charter, the ASEAN
    Coordinating Council shall determine the terms of reference
    and rules of procedure and shall ensure their consistency.

    **

    ARTICLE 50. REVIEW

    This Charter may be reviewed five years after its entry into
    force or as otherwise determined by the ASEAN Summit.

    **

    ARTICLE 51. INTERPRETATION OF THE CHARTER

    1. Upon the request of any Member State, the interpretation
    of the Charter shall be undertaken by the ASEAN Secretariat in
    accordance with the rules of procedure determined by the
    ASEAN Coordinating Council.

    2. Any dispute arising from the interpretation of the Charter
    shall be settled in accordance with the relevant provisions in
    Chapter VIII.

    3. Headings and titles used throughout the Charter shall
    only be for the purpose of reference.

    **

    ARTICLE 52. LEGAL CONTINUITY

    1. All treaties, conventions, agreements, concords,
    declarations, protocols and other ASEAN instruments which
    have been in effect before the entry into force of this Charter
    shall continue to be valid.

    2. In case of inconsistency between the rights and
    obligations of ASEAN Member States under such instruments
    and this Charter, the Charter shall prevail.

    **

    ARTICLE 53. ORIGINAL TEXT

    The signed original text of this Charter in English shall be
    deposited with the Secretary-General of ASEAN, who shall
    provide a certified copy to each Member State.

    **

    ARTICLE 54. REGISTRATION OF THE ASEAN CHARTER

    This Charter shall be registered by the Secretary-General of
    ASEAN with the Secretariat of the United Nations, pursuant to
    Article 102, paragraph 1 of the Charter of the United Nations.

    **

    ARTICLE 55. ASEAN ASSETS

    The assets and funds of the Organisation shall be vested in the
    name of ASEAN.

    Done in Singapore on the Twentieth Day of November in the
    Year Two Thousand and Seven, in a single original in the
    English language.

    **

    For Brunei Darussalam:
    HAJI HASSANAL BOLKIAH
    Sultan of Brunei Darussalam

    For the Kingdom of Cambodia:
    SAMDECH HUN SEN
    Prime Minister

    For the Republic of Indonesia:
    DR. SUSILO BAMBANG YUDHOYONO
    President

    For the Lao People’s Democratic Republic:
    BOUASONE BOUPHAVANH
    Prime Minister

    For Malaysia:
    DATO’ SERI ABDULLAH AHMAD BADAWI
    Prime Minister

    For the Union of Myanmar:
    GENERAL THEIN SEIN
    Prime Minister

    For the Republic of the Philippines:
    GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO
    President

    For the Republic of Singapore:
    LEE HSIEN LOONG
    Prime Minister

    For the Kingdom of Thailand:
    GENERAL SURAYUD CHULANONT (RET.)
    Prime Minister

    For the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam:
    NGUYEN TAN DUNG
    Prime Minister

    **************

    [Message last modified 05-12-2011 02:09pm by veayoo]

    #383994
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    Europe has a few organizations set after world war II. It has Europe Union and NATO.

    Somehow, Europe nations do not fight like they used to any more. I wander whether any of the above organizations has clue to peace among nations that ASEAN lacks.

    #384001
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    If I am not mistaken, ASEAN was somehow like NATO. Along its path, it turned itself to present ASEAN.

    #384009
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO, also called the (North) Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.

    The NATO headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, and the organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.

    **

    For its first few years, NATO was not much more than a political association. However, the Korean War galvanized the member states, and an integrated military structure was built up under the direction of two U.S. supreme commanders.

    The first NATO Secretary General, Lord Ismay, famously stated the organization’s goal was “to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down”.

    Doubts over the strength of the relationship between the European states and the United States ebbed and flowed, along with doubts over the credibility of the NATO defence against a prospective Soviet invasion—doubts that led to the development of the independent French nuclear deterrent and the withdrawal of the French from NATO’s military structure from 1966.

    **

    After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the organization became drawn into the Balkans while building better links with former potential enemies to the east, which culminated with several former Warsaw Pact states joining the alliance in 1999 and 2004.

    On 1 April 2009, membership was enlarged to 28 with the entrance of Albania and Croatia. Since the 11 September attacks, NATO has attempted to refocus itself to new challenges and has deployed troops to Afghanistan as well as trainers to Iraq.

    The Berlin Plus agreement is a comprehensive package of agreements made between NATO and the European Union on 16 December 2002. With this agreement the EU was given the possibility to use NATO assets in case it wanted to act independently in an international crisis, on the condition that NATO itself did not want to act—the so-called “right of first refusal”.[6][dead link] Only if NATO refused to act would the EU have the option to act.

    The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the world’s defence spending. The United States alone accounts for 43% of the total military spending of the world[8] and the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Italy account for a further 15%.

    #384016
    Avatar of veayoo
    veayoo
    Participant

    Members of NATO

    NATO has added new members seven times since first forming in 1949 (the last two in 2009).

    NATO comprises 28 members: Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    Future enlargement

    New membership in the alliance has been largely from Eastern Europe and the Balkans, including former members of the Warsaw Pact. At the 2008 summit in Bucharest, three countries were promised future invitations: the Republic of Macedonia, Georgia and Ukraine.

    Though it has completed the requirements for membership, the accession of Macedonia is blocked by Greece, pending resolution of the Macedonia naming dispute. Cyprus also has not progressed toward further relations, in part because of opposition from Turkey.

    Other potential candidate countries include Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, which joined the Adriatic Charter of potential members in 2008.

    Russia, as referred to above, continues to oppose further expansion, seeing it as inconsistent with understandings between Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and U.S. President George H. W. Bush that allowed for a peaceful German reunification. NATO’s expansion policy is seen by Moscow as a continuation of a Cold War attempt to surround and isolate Russia.

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