Easy way to speaking Hindi?

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    Lesson #52: Possessive Pronouns Part 4: अपना apnaa

    In today’s lesson we’re going to learn about the Hindi word अपना apnaa and how to use it. As usual we’ll see several examples of the word in real life sentences. This word can be quite confusing and difficult for English speakers to understand and use correctly so it’s important to pay attention!

    अपना apnaa by itself doesn’t really translate very well into English, it’s used to show ownership and can mean any of: my own, her own, their own etc. अपना apnaa replaces the usual possessive pronoun when the person ‘doing the possessing’ and the person who is subject of the sentence are the same.


    Let me show you one example to start with:

    मैं अपना पानी पीती हूँ main apnaa paanee peetee hoon.
    I drink my water (said by a female).

    Notice how we don’t use मेरा meraa – my, as we learnt in Lesson #37. Why is this? Well because both the subject of the sentence, मैं main I, and ‘the person doing the possessing’ are the same person. ‘I’ and ‘my water’, both refer to the same person, so मेरा meraa – is replaced by अपना apnaa. Following?


    अपना apnaa, like all other possessive pronouns we’ve learnt, must agree with what’s being ‘possessed’; it changes to अपने apne for plural masculine and अपनी apnee for feminine singular and plural.

    Let’s see another example:

    यह अपनी किताब पढ़ रहा है yeh apnee kitaab parh rahaa hai.
    -He is reading his (own) book.

    Here we use अपनी apnee to agree with the feminine किताब kitaab- book. अपनी apnee replaces इसकी iskee (which we learnt to mean his) because ‘he’ and ‘his book’ refer to the same person.

    Can you see? If we were to use इसकी iskee instead of अपनी apnee the sentence would change to mean ‘He reads his (as in someone else’s) book’. I hope you can understand very small but very important difference!

    Let’s carry on with the examples, try and notice in each example why we use अपना apnaa and also see if you can spot which possessive pronoun it is replacing.

    आप अपने कमरे में हैं – aap apne kamre men hain
    – You are in your (own) room.

    Here we’ve used अपने apne because it has to agree with कमरे में kamre men – ‘In the room’ which is Masculine and in the Oblique case.


    Ready for another example?

    राम अपना खाना खाता है raam apnaa khaanaa khaataa hai.
    – Ram eats his (own) food.

    ये अपनी भाषा बोलते हैं ye apnee bhaasaa bolte hain.
    -They speak their (own) language.

    मैं अपने भाई से लंबा हूँ main apne bhaaee se lambaa hoon.
    – I am taller than my (own) brother

    (This is known as Comparing Adjectives, you can learn more about this sentence structure in Lesson #73).

    It’s really important to get the pronunciation of this word correct because in Past tense Hindi sentences we say आपने aapne to mean ‘you did …’ You can learn more about this in the Intermediate Grammar section. So make sure you’re pronouncing the अ a and आ aa sounds correctly, for help with this please see Hindi Script Tutor!

    I hope you can now understand how to correctly use अपना apnaa in sentences! As I said it is quite a complicated word, especially for English speakers, so make sure you practice using it.

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    Lesson #53: Verbs Part 4: The Future Tense

    What tenses have we learnt about so far? That’s right, we’ve seen the Present Tense (For example – I eat) and the Present Continuous Tense (For example – I am eating). Be sure to revise over those lessons if your memory has slipped!

    Today we’re going to learn all about the future tense in Hindi! So what is the future tense? Well it’s simple talking about things that are going to happen. We uses the word ‘will’ in English to show the future tense, for example we can say ‘I will eat’, ‘She will walk’ or ‘they will write’ etc.

    The future tense is going to be very important if you ever want to make plans with someone when talking in Hindi!


    So how do we make future tense sentences in Hindi? Well it’s actually quite straightforward, all we do is add ‘something’ to the end of the verb root. I’m going to show you a few examples first to get you into it and then I’ll teach you the actual rules, so are you ready? अच्छा acchaa great!

    मैं केला खाऊँगा main kelaa khaaoongaa
    – I will eat a banana (said by a Male)

    So what have we said here? Well we’ve used the word मैं main – I, then केला kelaa – banana and finally we have खाऊँगा khaaoongaa – this is the future tense Masculine form of the word खाना khaanaa – to eat, it shows we are talking about the future!


    Ready for another example?

    यह किताब पढ़ेगा yeh kitaab parhegaa – He will read a book

    Here we’ve used the word पढ़ेगा parhegaa and this is the future tense Masculine form of the word पढ़ना parhnaa – to read.


    I’ll show you one more example and then we’ll learn the rules, ready?

    हम फ़ल्म देखेंगे ham film dekhenge – We will watch a film.

    So finally here we’ve used the word देखेंगे dekhenge which is the future tense version of the verb देखना dekhnaa – To watch.


    Can you see any kind of a pattern in these three examples? Don’t worry if you cant because it’s a little tricky at first! Are you ready to learn the proper rules the Hindi Future tense sentences now then? Great! So deep breath, here goes…

    For Masculine Subjects, simply add the following to the verb root:

    First Person Singular

    मैं -ऊँगा main -oongaa I will –

    First Person Plural

    हम -एँगे ham -enge We will –

    Second Person Singular

    तू -एगा too -egaa You will – (Very Informal)

    Second Person Plural

    आप -एँगे aap -enge You will – (Formal)

    तुम -ओगे tum -oge You will – (Informal)

    Third Person Singular

    यह / वह -एगा yeh / voh -egaa He, It will –

    Third Person Plural

    ये / वे -एँगे ye / ve enge They will –

    Phew! How was that? You don’t need to memorize them just yet, try and learn them through example!


    For Feminine Subjects:

    We simply change the last vowel to an ई ee. For example…

    मैं -ऊँगी main -oongee I will –

    आप -एँगी aap -engee You will – (Formal) etc.


    Now we’ve learnt the actual rules I want you to go back through the examples at the top and see why we’ve used the verb the way we have! Are you ready for some more examples?

    The Hindi word for the verb ‘to teach’ is सीखाना seekhaanaa. (Compare this to सीखना seekhnaa – to learn!). So how do you think a female would say ‘I will teach Hindi’. Can you think what it would be? That’s right, we say…

    मैं हिन्दी सीखाऊँगी main hindee seekhaaoongee
    – I will teach Hindi (said by a female).


    Finally (and this is the last example, I promise!) how do you think we’d say “They will write a story”. The Hindi word for story is कहानी kahaanee. Thats right, we say…

    वे कहानी लिखेंगे ve kahaanee likhenge – They will write a story.


    Whew! Wow. Today’s been a really long lesson so well done if you’ve read it all the way through. Congratulations, you now know how to speak about the future tense in Hindi! As a challenge I want you to try and write a few future tense sentences in the comments section below if you think you’re up to it!

    Avatar of veayoo

    Lesson #54: Dotted Consonants

    If you’ve been paying attention to the Devanagari on this blog you may have noticed this ‘dot’ in the bottom corner of some letters; ़. For example in the verb पढ़ना parhnaa – to read, the ढ़ rha has this dot!

    This dot is added to some Hindi letters to change their pronunciation and it’s used for ‘loan’ words from other languages, ie words deriving from Arabic, Persian, English etc. Today we’ll learn about these ‘dotted letters’ and how to pronounce them.

    Some of these dotted consonants are rarely used in both written and spoken Hindi but technically they do exist so I have still included them here.

    To type this dot when typing in Hindi simply type the normal letter and then the ‘]’ key to add the dot.


    Firstly क़ qa

    This is pronounced like क ka, but you should make the sound further back in your throat. The dot on this letter is often omitted in printed texts and in fact it’s often spoken as a normal क ka, by many native speakers. This character is used for words deriving from Persian or Arabic, for example क़लम qalam pen, but note that I use the more commonly seen कलम kalam on this blog.


    Next it’s ख़ kha

    This is pronounced like the ch in the Scottish ‘loch’, and should sound like a more ‘aggressive’ ख kha. But again, like क़ qa, it is often simply both printed in texts and pronounced as ख kha.


    Next ग़ ga

    This is pronounced as ग ga, but with the sound coming from further back in the throat. Again this letter is rarely seen, usually being replaced both in written and spoken language by ग ga.


    Fourthly we have ज़ za

    This is pronounced just like the English z, as in zoo and is used for words deriving from Persian and Arabic. Unlike our previous dotted consonants ज़ za is usually both pronounced and written as ज़ za. For example the word बाज़ार baazaar – Market which derives from the Persian بازار baazaar.


    Next ड़ ra

    This is pronounced like ड da but the tongue should move across the palate as the sound is made. Note that is does not sound the same as र ra .This letter is quite common in Hindi and should always be pronounced as ड़ ra. We already know the word लड़का larkaa – boy.


    Sixth ढ़ rha

    This letter is quite common in Hindi and should be pronounced as an aspirated ड़ ra. We saw an example for the letter at the start of the lesson, पढ़ना parhnaa – to read.


    Finally, फ़ fa

    This should be pronounced just as an English f, like the f in ‘fin’. This letter is usually pronounced as फ़ fa but in some regions it may be pronounced as the normal फ pha. It’s used for several English loan words, like फ़िल्म film – Film.


    The first 3 of these letters are rarely seen so you don’t need to worry about them too much, the last 4 are quite common so it’s a good idea to learn them. As a general rule of thumb if you see a letter written with a dot then you should pronounce it in it’s dotted form. I’d recommend that you use either Hindi Script Tutor or Teach Yourself Hindi to help you with the pronunciation of these letters, especially for ड़ ra and ढ़ rha.

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    Lesson #55: The Future Form of होना – To be

    In Lesson #53 we began to learn about the future tense in Hindi and we saw how to change verbs into their future form. I mentioned that the verb होना honaa – ‘to be’ is irregular, so today we’re going to learn how to change this verb into the future tense! We covered the present tense form of होना honaa in Lesson #22, it may be worth revising that lesson first.

    The reason I’m doing this verb separately is because it’s probably the most common verb you’ll use so it’s very important! Ready?


    The Masculine Forms:

    मैं हूँगा main hoongaa I will be

    हम होंगे ham honge We will be

    तू होगा too hogaa You will be (Very Informal)

    आप होंगे aap honge You will be (Formal)

    तुम होगे tum hoge You will be (Informal)

    यह / वह होगा yeh / voh hogaa He, It will be

    ये / वे होंगे ye / ve honge They will be


    For the Feminine Forms you simple replace the final आ aa or ए e with ई ee in all cases.

    Note that you don’t use होना honaa when using another verb in the future tense, ’she will speak’ is simply यह बोलेगी yeh bolegee (as learnt in Lesson #53).

    So now lets see a few examples:

    वे यहाँ होंगे ve yahaan honge – They will be here.

    (Compare this to वे यहाँ हैं ve yahaan hain – They are here)

    नेहा खड़ी होगी nehaa kharee hogee – Neha will be standing

    कल मैं घर पर हूँगा kal main ghar par hoongaa – Tomorrow I will be at home


    Got it? It can take a little practice so don’t worry!

    Avatar of veayoo

    Lesson #56: Vocabulary Builder: Verbs

    In today’s lesson we’re simply going to see a whole list of common Hindi Verbs so that we can expand our vocabulary and talk about a wider range of activities. It’s really important when learning any langauge to keep learning more and more new words.

    If you remember, Verbs are simply ‘doing’ or ‘being’ words that show something is happening. We’ve already learnt a lot about Verbs in Hindi, you can read back over this in the Beginner’s Section by clicking on any of the lessons about Verbs!

    I’ve listed these in Hindi alphabetical order, this takes some getting used to but it’s simply the order that we learnt the letters in; vowels come first, then the consonants by their groups. Some of these we have already seen and so you should be familiar with them.

    I don’t recommend you waste hours learning these verbs, instead I recommend reading through this list several times and getting familiar with them. I’ll be using all of these in future lessons so that will give you some practice in using them.


    Verb transliteration translation (notes, verbs that say ‘irregular’ do not follow the usual rules and will be covered in detail later)

    आना aanaa to come

    उठना uthnaa to rise

    उड़ना urnaa to fly

    करना karnaa to do (used in many compound verbs, see ‘to love’ and ‘to clean’ below for example)

    कहना kahnaa to speak / to say

    खाना khaanaa to eat (also the noun ‘food’ m)

    गाना gaanaa to sing (also the noun ‘song’ m)

    चलना calnaa to walk / to move

    चाहना caahnaa to want

    चिल्लाना cillaanaa to shout

    छूना choonaa to touch / to feel

    जलाना jalaanaa to burn

    जानना jaannaa to know

    जाना jaanaa to go (irregular in past tense)

    तैरना tairnaa to swim

    देखना dekhnaa to look / to see

    देना denaa to give (irregular)

    धोना dhonaa to wash

    नाचना naacnaa to dance

    पढ़ना parhnaa to read / to study

    पीना peenaa to drink / to smoke (cigarettes)

    प्यार करना pyaar karnaa to love (see Lesson #29)

    बजना bajnaa to ring / to chime

    बनाना banaanaa to make / to build

    बोलना bolnaa to speak

    रहना rahnaa to stay / to live

    लिखना likhnaa to write

    लेना lenaa to take / to receive (irregular)

    साफ़ करना saaf karnaa to clean

    सीखना seekhnaa to learn

    सोना sonaa to sleep

    होना honaa to be (irregular, see Lesson #22 for present tense, Lesson #55 for future)

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    Lesson #57: What Time is it?

    Today we’re going to focus on the phrase ‘What time is it?’.

    This is a very important phrase to know! We’ll also see how to reply with something like ‘It’s 10 o’clock’. This is very important to know because think about it, you’ll never be able to make plans if you can’t tell the time! So are you ready to get straight into it? अच्छा acchaa – Great!


    The phrase we’ll be using is:

    कितने बजे हैं? kitne baje hain – What time is it?

    Do you know all the words here? Let’s go through them quickly!

    कितने kitne means ‘how much’ or ‘how many’. Next we have बजे baje which comes from the verb बजना bajnaa meaning to ring or to chime. Finally of course we have हैं hain – are. So literally we’re asking ‘How Many Rings?’ or ‘How Many Chimes?’.

    Have you gotten it? कितने बजे हैं? kitne baje hain – What time is it?! So now obviously we need to learn how to reply to this! Now this is so easy I promise you! But before we carry on be sure to revise over the Numbers in Hindi here.


    To say One o’clock in Hindi we simply say एक बजा ek bajaa – One o’clock. So if someone asks you the time and it’s One o’clock you’d say…

    कितने बजे हैं? kitne baje hain – What time is it?

    एक बजा है ek bajaa hai – It’s one o’clock.

    Can you see what we’ve done here? Now for any other hour we say that number and then बजे baje. Can you see the difference? For One o’clock, it’s एक बजा ek bajaa and for anything else it’s that number then बजे baje! So for example we might say…

    कितने बजे हैं? kitne baje hain – What time is it?

    चार बजे हैं caar baje hain – It’s four o’clock.

    Are you following? It’s a lot easier than you think hey! Ready for another example?

    कितने बजे हैं? kitne baje hain – What time is it?

    नौ बजे हैं nau baje hain – It’s nine o’clock.

    Have you gotten it mastered now? Great! Practice telling the time in Hindi whenever you can. Here’s a tip; every time you go to say ‘something o’clock’ in English, think and say what it would be Hindi. Next time, in What Time is it? Part 2, we’ll learn how to say ‘Half Past’ and I’ll show you some example sentences!

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    Lesson #58: Where Do You Live?

    Today we’re going to learn how to ask the question ‘Where do you live?’ in Hindi and see several example responses. This, along with all the other phrases we’re learning in the Conversational Hindi section, is going to mean that you have another thing to talk about whenever meeting someone in India!


    The question is different when directed to males and females, so here it is.

    When asking a male:

    आप कहाँ रहते हैं? aap kahaan rahte hain – Where do you live?

    And when asking a female:

    आप कहाँ रहती हैं? aap kahaan rahtee hain – Where do you live?

    We’ve seen some of these words many times already; आप aap – you, कहाँ kahaan – where, and then we have रहते / ती rahte / tee, simply the Present Tense form (more details on Present Tense in Lesson #28) of the verb रहना rahnaa – to live / to stay, as mentioned in Lesson #56.


    Let’s see some examples using this question; (We learnt the names of some countries in Lesson #45, it might be useful for you to revise over them)

    मैं लंदन में रहता हूँ main landan men rahtaa hoon – I live in London (Male).

    हम दिल्ली में रहते हैं ham dillee men rahte hain – We live in Delhi.

    क्या आप मुंबई में रहती हैं? kyaa aap mumbaee men rahtee hain – Do you live in Mumbai? (Asking a female)

    जी हाँ, मैं मुंबई में रहती हूँ jee haan, main mumbaee men rahtee hoon – Yes (polite), I live in Mumbai (female).

    गीता कहाँ रहती है? geetaa kahaan rahtee hai – Where does Gita live?

    यह जयपुर में रहती है yeh jaypur men rahtee hai – She lives in Jaipur.

    You now know one more conversational phrase so practice it and use it whenever you have the chance!

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    Lesson #59: Learn Hindi with the Commonwealth Games!

    I’m sure you all know that the 2010 Commonwealth Games are currently happening in Delhi, India. But did you realise that you can use this as an excellent opportunity to practice and improve your Hindi? Or even, for those who are not yet learning Hindi, can you see that this is a perfect opportunity to start?

    Even just watching the sports you’ll see Hindi words written around the events and stadiums so why not practice by trying to read them, if you don’t know what the words mean see if you can figure it out!

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    Lesson #60: Abhinav’s Introduction

    To check your understanding and knowledge of all the things we have learnt recently, here I have presented a short paragraph giving a full but breif introduction for a fictional person called Abhinav. Do you think you’re ready to try and understand it? This will use phrases from both the Conversational Section and the Beginners Grammar Section of this website, so revise over the lessons there if you struggle.

    New words I use here are translated in the vocabulary section at the bottom. There’s also a few a comprehension questions at the end just to check you’ve understood, so please leave a comment with what you think the answers are and I’ll let you know how well you’ve done!


    So here it is! Abhinav’s Introduction…

    नमस्ते। तुम कैसे हो? मैं बहुत अच्छा हूँ।

    मेरा नाम अभिनव है और मैं अठारह साल का हूँ। मैं हिन्दुस्तानी हूँ और मैं विद्यार्थी हूँ। मेरे पिताजी का नाम सुरेश है। वे भी हिन्दुस्तानी हैं और वे पैंतालीस साल के हैं।

    मेरी माताजी अंग्रेज़ हैं और उनका नाम मेरी (Mary) है। वे हिन्दी सीख रही हैं। वे काफ़ी छोटी हैं। हमारा घर बड़ा और सफ़ेद है। मेरा कमरा छोटा है लेकिन यह बहुत अच्छा है।

    फिर मिलेंगे।

    namaste. tum kaise ho? main bahut acchaa hoon.

    meraa naam abhivan hai aur main athaarah saal kaa hoon. main hindustaanee hoon aur main vidyaarthee hoon. mere pitaajee kaa naam suresh hai. ve bhee hindustaanee hain aur ve paintaalees saal ke hain.

    meree maataajee angrez hain aur unkaa naam meree (Mary) hai. ve hindee seekh rahee hain. ve kaafee chotee hain. hamaaraa ghar kaafee baraa aur safed hai. meraa kamaraa chotaa hai lekin yeh bahut acchaa hai.

    phir milenge

    Here’s the new Vocabulary:

    हिन्दुस्तानी hindustaanee Indian

    विद्यार्थी vidyaarthee Student

    पैंतालीस paintaalees Fourty Five

    अंग्रेज़ angrez English (As in an English person)

    काफ़ी kaafee Quite

    लेकिन lekin But

    One thing to note is that Abhinav uses plural pronouns (ie वे ve ) when talking about his mother or father, this is used to show respect. You should always remember to refer to someone older than you this way!

    If you didn’t understand anything here then firstly check back over the Conversational Section and the Beginners Grammar Section of this website and then if you still dont understand please feel free to leave a comment at the bottom of this lesson.

    Finally, can you answer these three questions on the text? Answer the first two in Hindi and the last in English.

    क्या अभिनव अंग्रेज़ी है? kyaa abhinav angrezee hai?

    अभिनव की उम्र क्या है? abhinav kee umr kyaa hai?

    Who is Mary and what is she learning?

    Why don’t you practice your Hindi by writing an introduction about yourself basing it on some of the same phrases we’ve used here, maybe you can even think of your own phrases to describe your life.

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    Lesson #61: Pronouns Part 2; The Oblique Case

    Can you recall what the Oblique Case of a noun is in Hindi? Remember, it’s the special case for nouns that we must use when we are using a postposition. Postpositions are words like on, in, to etc and we covered them in Lesson #50 (You might want to revise over that if you can’t remember anything)

    In Lesson #48 we learnt how we change nouns into this Oblique Case, लड़के larke – boys, for example, becomes लड़कों larkon in the oblique. So we would say; लड़कों को larkon ko – to the boys.

    And so today we’re going to begin to learn how to use Pronouns in the oblique case. This is going to be really important for us because many common sentence structures use the pronoun in the oblique case! You don’t really need to memorise these just yet, but try and familiarise yourself with them, so that you are ready for when we start using them in the next few lessons.

    Anyway here goes.


    First Person Singular

    मुझ mujh is the oblique form of मैं main – I

    First Person Plural

    हम ham – we, remains the same in the oblique.


    Second Person Singular

    तुझ tujh is the oblique form of तू too – You (Very Informal)

    Second Person Plural

    तुम tum – You (Informal), remains the same in the oblique.

    आप aap You (Formal), remains the same in the oblique.


    Third Person Singular

    इस is is the oblique form of यह yeh – He / She / It / That (Close)

    उस us is the oblique form of वह voh – He / She / It / That (Far)

    Third Person Plural

    इन in is the oblique form of ये ye – They / Those (Close)

    उन un is the oblique form of वे ve – They / Those (Far)


    Do you recognize these last four, the third person oblique pronouns, from anywhere?

    Yeah that’s right, we saw them in Lesson #37 Possessive Pronouns where they were combine with का kaa, the postposition that shows possession.

    It might seem a bit pointless learning this new oblique form of these pronouns without any examples, but don’t worry I will be showing you a whole load of examples and uses in the next few lessons, you’ll see how important they are and how they really expand your Hindi knowledge!

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