when did Buddhism came to Cambodia?

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  • #301442
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    A lot of history books claim that Buddhism came to Cambodia in the 14th century and it was the Siem/Thai that introduce Buddhism to Cambodia.

    well there’s a book call Asiatic Mythology(1932), is about a guy name M. Adhemard Leclere who travel all over Asia and read almost every Asian culture ancient text, including ancient Khmer text books.

    Here what he have to say about when Buddhism arrival in Cambodia.

    A purely Cambodian Legend makes the Buddha, A short time before his death, journey to Cambodia in company with his faithful disciple Ananda; they arrive, accroding to this legend, in the place call Kut Thlok, a name we have already observed as denoting ancient Cambodia.
    Other legends mention the arrival of scared texts brought from Ceylon in a junk and intended for the King of Vieng-Shan about the year 638 A.D. The junk having run ashore in Cambodia, the inhabitants took possession of these texts and deposited them in Angkor Wat. Purely legendary tales that recall the memory of the introduction of a religion coming from India. probably brought by Buddhist missionaires.[b] We may, however, note that in 638 A.D. Buddhism was already known in Cambodia, and the temple Angkor Wat not yet built.[/b]

    then he stated that Cambodian legend claim that Angkor Wat was built at the order of Preah En to serve as a palace for his son young prince Ket Mealea and to keep the Buddhism religion alive in Cambodia.

    if this is true then it mean when it come to Khmer people, Hindu & Buddhism is really the same religion. This also might explain why Angkor Wat can also be a Buddhist temple even tho it have Hindu god and Hindu epic all over it wall.

    and in his book he also mention a ancient Khmer book call the Kampi Preah Thomma Chhean, it talk about orgin of Human. What shock me was, it was kind of similar to the Bible origin of Human.

    Another Cambodian work, the Kampi Preah Thomma Chhean, teaches that in the beginning a form, rupa, existed in itself from all eternity, before birth of all things; the book call this form “the holy state of nothing and the void,” which is not greatly enlightening.
    Then the Preah Keo “Holy jewel” (perhaps a personification of the Sun) was born and in turn begat the earth, water, fire, the wind, space, human beings, and the animals. [b]This text makes man come from the dirt of the body Preah Thorni(The Earth), while woman was born from the shadow of man….[/b]

    [Message last modified 05-15-2009 12:17pm by ------]

    #301457
    Avatar of
    Anonymous

    Buddism was brought from india by first khmer king. Tousivong khmer known in litecture is preah thong.

    [i]Originally posted by ——[/i]
    A lot of history books claim that Buddhism came to Cambodia in the 14th century and it was the Siem/Thai that introduce Buddhism to Cambodia.

    well there’s a book call Asiatic Mythology(1932), is about a guy name M. Adhemard Leclere who travel all over Asia and read almost every Asian culture ancient text, including ancient Khmer text books.
    [img]http://books.google.com/books?id=HAZrFhvqnTkC&printsec=frontcover&img=1&zoom=1&sig=ACfU3U3QJE8WIY4afNyP-YizWIRZye12FA[/img]

    Here what he have to say about when Buddhism arrival in Cambodia.
    [quote]

    A purely Cambodian Legend makes the Buddha, A short time before his death, journey to Cambodia in company with his faithful disciple Ananda; they arrive, accroding to this legend, in the place call Kut Thlok, a name we have already observed as denoting ancient Cambodia.
    Other legends mention the arrival of scared texts brought from Ceylon in a junk and intended for the King of Vieng-Shan about the year 638 A.D. The junk having run ashore in Cambodia, the inhabitants took possession of these texts and deposited them in Angkor Wat. Purely legendary tales that recall the memory of the introduction of a religion coming from India. probably brought by Buddhist missionaires.[b] We may, however, note that in 638 A.D. Buddhism was already known in Cambodia, and the temple Angkor Wat not yet built.[/b]

    then he stated that Cambodian legend claim that Angkor Wat was built at the order of Preah En to serve as a palace for his son young prince Ket Mealea and to keep the Buddhism religion alive in Cambodia.

    if this is true then it mean when it come to Khmer people, Hindu & Buddhism is really the same religion. This also might explain why Angkor Wat can also be a Buddhist temple even tho it have Hindu god and Hindu epic all over it wall.

    and in his book he also mention a ancient Khmer book call the Kampi Preah Thomma Chhean, it talk about orgin of Human. What shock me was, it was kind of similar to the Bible origin of Human.

    Another Cambodian work, the Kampi Preah Thomma Chhean, teaches that in the beginning a form, rupa, existed in itself from all eternity, before birth of all things; the book call this form “the holy state of nothing and the void,” which is not greatly enlightening.
    Then the Preah Keo “Holy jewel” (perhaps a personification of the Sun) was born and in turn begat the earth, water, fire, the wind, space, human beings, and the animals. [b]This text makes man come from the dirt of the body Preah Thorni(The Earth), while woman was born from the shadow of man….[/b]

    [Message last modified 05-15-2009 12:17pm by ------][/quote]

    #301467
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    this is why i stop believing in what outsider say about our history. I only believe Khmer history writtin by Khmer only cause it make more sense.

    [Message last modified 05-15-2009 05:14pm by ------]

    #301479
    Avatar of Tevbot
    Tevbot
    Participant

    from wikipedia:

    Buddhism has existed in Cambodia since as early as the 3rd century BCE

    has been the Cambodian state religion since the 13th century CE (except during the Khmer Rouge period)

    The history of Buddhism in Cambodia spans nearly two thousand years, across a number of successive kingdoms and empires.

    Buddhism entered Cambodia through two different streams:

    - The earliest forms of Buddhism, along with Hindu influences, entered the Funan kingdom with Hindu merchants.
    - In later history, a second stream of Buddhism entered Khmer culture during the Angkor empire when Cambodia absorbed the various Buddhist traditions of the Mon kingdoms of Dvaravati and Haripunchai.

    For the first thousand years of Khmer history, Cambodia was ruled by a series of Hindu kings with an occasional Buddhist king, such as Jayavarman of Funan, and Suryvarman I. A variety of Buddhist traditions co-existed peacefully throughout Cambodian lands, under the tolerant auspices of Hindu kings and the neighboring Mon-Theravada kingdoms.

    The primary form of Buddhism practiced in Cambodia during Angkor times was Mahayana Buddhism, strongly influenced with Tantric tendencies. “The prevalence of Tantrayana in Java, Sumatra and Kamboja [Cambodia], a fact now definitely established by modern researches into the character of Mahayana Buddhism and Sivaism in these parts of the Indian Orient. Already in Kamboja inscription of the 9th century there is definite evidence of the teaching of Tantric texts at the court of Jayavarman II. In a Kamboja record of the 11th century there is a reference to the ‘Tantras of the Paramis’; and images of Hevajra, definitely a tantric divinity, have been recovered from amidst the ruins of Angkor Thom. A number of Kamboja inscriptions refer to several kings who were initiated into the Great Secret (Vrah Guhya) by their Brahmanical gurus; the Saiva records make obvious records to Tantric doctrines that had crept into Sivaism.”
    Jayavarman VII
    Jayavarman VII (1181-1215), the most significant Khmer Buddhist king, worked tirelessly to establish Buddhism as the state religion of Angkor.[citation needed]Jayavarman VII was a Mahayana Buddhist, and he regarded himself to be a Dharma-king, a bodhisattva, whose duty was to “save the people” through service and merit-making, liberating himself in the process. Jayavarman withdrew his devotion from the old gods and began to identify more openly with Buddhist traditions. His regime marked a clear dividing line with the old Hindu past. Before 1200, art in the temples mostly portrayed scenes from the Hindu pantheon; after 1200, Buddhist scenes began to appear as standard motifs.

    During Jayavarman VII’s reign, there was a shift away from the concept of devaraja god-king, toward the concept of the Sangha, the concept of monks. In former times, great effort and resources were invested into building temples for elite brahman priests and god-kings. Under Jayavarman, these resources were redirected to building libraries, monastic dwellings, public works, and more “earthly” projects accessible to the common people.

    While Jayavarman VII himself was Mahayana Buddhist, the presence of Theravada Buddhism was increasingly evident. Tamalinda, the Khmer monk believed to be the son of Jayavarman VII, took part in an 1180 Burmese-led mission to Sri Lanka to study the Pali canon and on his return in 1190 had adepts of the Sinhala doctrine in his court. Chou Ta-Laun, who led a Chinese mission in to Angkor in 1296-97 confirms the significant presence of Pali Theravada monks in the Khmer Capital.”

    After the 13th century Theravada Buddhism became the state religion of Cambodia.

    King Jayavarman VII had sent his son Tamilinda to Sri Lanka to be ordained as a Buddhist monk and study Theravada Buddhism according to the Pali scriptural traditions. Tamalinda then returned to Cambodia and promoted Buddhist traditions according to the Theravada training he had received, galvanizing and energizing the long standing Theravada presence that had existed throughout the Angkor empire for centuries.

    During the time Tamalinda studied at the famous Mahavihara Monastery in Sri Lanka (1180-1190), a new dynamic type of Theravada Buddhism was being preached as the “true faith” in Sri Lanka. This form of Buddhism was somewhat militant and highly disciplined in reaction to the wars with the Tamil that nearly destroyed Buddhism in Sri Lanka in the 9th and 10th centuries.

    In the 13th century, wandering missionaries from the Mon-Khmer-speaking parts of Siam, Burma, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka played an important part in this process.

    When Prince Tamalinda returned after ten years of ordination, he was a Thera, a senior monk, capable of administering ordination into this vigorous Theravada lineage, which insisted on orthodoxy and rejected Mahayana “innovations” such as tantric practices.

    As Angkor collapsed under the advancing jungles, the center of power of the Theravada Cambodia moved south toward present day Phnom Penh. Phnom Penh was originally a small riverside market center where the Mekong River and the Tonle Sap River converge.

    Phnom Penh was founded when Lady Penh found a “four-faced Buddha” floating down the river on a Koki tree during the flooding season. She retrieved the Buddha image and had the Wat Phnom constructed to house the image. The four-faced Buddha [Buddha facing the four directions] is important in Khmer Buddhist iconography, signifying the establishment of the kingdom of the Buddha of the Future, Maitreya, who is often identified with the Buddha-king of Cambodia.

    Today Buddhism is struggling to re-establish itself although the lack of Buddhist scholars and leaders and the continuing political instability makes the task difficult.

    Cambodian males over sixteen serve terms as bonzes. Most young men do not intend to become fully ordained bonzes (bhikkhu), and they remain as monks for less than a year. Even a son’s temporary ordination as a bonze brings great merit to his parents, however, and is considered so important that arrangements are made at a parent’s funeral if the son has not undergone the process while the parent was living. There are two classes of bonzes at a wat–the novices (samani or nen) and the bhikkhu. Ordination is held from mid-April to mid-July, during the rainy season.[46]

    Buddhist monks do not take perpetual vows to remain monks, although, in fact, some become monks permanently. Traditionally, they became monks early in life. It is possible to become a novice at as young an age as seven, but in practice thirteen is the earliest age for novices. A bhikkhu must be at least twenty. The monk’s life is regulated by Buddhist law, and life in the wat adheres to a rigid routine. A bhikkhu follows 227 rules of monastic discipline as well as the 10 basic precepts. These include the five precepts that all Buddhists should follow. The five precepts for monastic asceticism prohibit eating after noon, participating in any entertainment (singing, dancing, and watching movies or television), using any personal adornments, sleeping on a luxurious bed, and handling money. In addition, a monk also is expected to be celibate.

    Role of Buddhism in Cambodian Life
    Buddhist monks traditionally were called upon to perform a number of functions in Cambodian life. They participated in all formal village festivals, ceremonies, marriages, and funerals. They also might have participated in ceremonies to name infants and in other minor ceremonies or rites of passage.

    Most of the major Cambodian annual festivals are connected with Buddhist observances. The chol chnam (New Year Festival) takes place in mid-April; it was one of the few festivals allowed under the Khmer Rouge regime. The phchun ben, celebrated in September or in October, is a memorial day for deceased ancestors and for close friends. Meak bochea, in January or February, commemorates the last sermon of the Buddha. Vissakh bochea, in April or in May, is the triple anniversary of the birth, death, and enlightenment of the Buddha. The chol vossa takes place in June or in July; it marks the beginning of a penitential season during which the monks must remain within the temple compounds. The kathen marks the end of this season; celebrated in September, it features offerings, especially of robes, to the monks. The kathen was still celebrated in the PRK in the late 1980s.[46]

    Cambodian Buddhism exists side-by-side with, and to some extent intermingles with, pre-Buddhist animism and Brahman practices.

    [Message last modified 06-01-2009 07:49am by Tevbot]

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    #301490
    Avatar of
    Anonymous

    i dont know much when buddhism came into khmer empire. But i would think it was from india prince that became a khmer empire. Preah thoung or preah tousivong in khmer

    #301501
    Avatar of Diamond2
    Diamond2
    Participant

    Buddhism came to Cambodia when the awaken one “bent baht” from Russia, into China and eat before noon in Modern Cambodia called “kos kroul”. Sorry that I can’t spelled correctly.

    During that time the awaken one sat under the tree and its about 5 monks who offered him rice. Then one lizard came down to him. Awaken one offered the lizard one rice. Then afterward, he started to preach to his fellowers about this land, and what will happened in the future.

    *the awaken one had found enlightment in India, but his spiritual is in this Island. Srok Khmer. so therefore, I would think buddhism got into srok khmer during that time. But our Kings were not reconized Buddhism religion. Until King jayavarman 7 converted our belief.

    #301512
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    [i]Originally posted by Diamond2[/i]
    Buddhism came to Cambodia when the awaken one “bent baht” from Russia, into China and eat before noon in Modern Cambodia called “kos kroul”. Sorry that I can’t spelled correctly.

    During that time the awaken one sat under the tree and its about 5 monks who offered him rice. Then one lizard came down to him. Awaken one offered the lizard one rice. Then afterward, he started to preach to his fellowers about this land, and what will happened in the future.

    *the awaken one had found enlightment in India, but his spiritual is in this Island. Srok Khmer. so therefore, I would think buddhism got into srok khmer during that time. But our Kings were not reconized Buddhism religion. Until King jayavarman 7 converted our belief.

    I heard it was a snake not a lizard, and the snake die and reborn as the first Khmer king.

    #301523
    Avatar of
    Anonymous

    Preah Tousivong brought buddhism in the first century..1AD..the first khmer wedding emerge.

    Jayvaram Vii is the incarnation of Preah Tousivong…

    [i]Originally posted by Diamond2[/i]
    Buddhism came to Cambodia when the awaken one “bent baht” from Russia, into China and eat before noon in Modern Cambodia called “kos kroul”. Sorry that I can’t spelled correctly.

    During that time the awaken one sat under the tree and its about 5 monks who offered him rice. Then one lizard came down to him. Awaken one offered the lizard one rice. Then afterward, he started to preach to his fellowers about this land, and what will happened in the future.

    *the awaken one had found enlightment in India, but his spiritual is in this Island. Srok Khmer. so therefore, I would think buddhism got into srok khmer during that time. But our Kings were not reconized Buddhism religion. Until King jayavarman 7 converted our belief.

    #301534
    Avatar of Diamond2
    Diamond2
    Participant

    Sorry poun pross, I have never heard of this king Preah Tousivong. He was a Buddhism or a Hindu?

    #301544
    Avatar of
    Anonymous

    In history book they use the name preah thong. The prince that wed the queen naga ( neang nek ) . He is a buddha.

    [i]Originally posted by Diamond2[/i]
    Sorry poun pross, I have never heard of this king Preah Tousivong. He was a Buddhism or a Hindu?

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